Persistent post-surgical pain (PPSP)

In the immediate period after surgery, a patient is expected to experience what is referred to as acute postoperative pain which is typically treated with medication such as local anaesthetic agents, opioids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs).

However, in some people pain may persist long after the surgical wound has healed – often referred to as persistent post surgical pain.1

In most affected patients, postsurgical chronic pain closely resembles neuropathic pain and can have a big impact on patient quality of life.


1 Kehlet H et al. Persistent postsurgical pain: risk factors and prevention. Lancet 2006; 367: 1618-25

Low Back Pain

Low back pain is a very common disorder affecting over 80 per cent of people at some point in their lives.1 It is defined as pain or discomfort localised in the lower portion of the back and the spinal column, with or without radiation to the lower extremities. Depending on its duration and severity, low back pain can considerably impair patients’ quality of life and work performance. It is one of the leading causes for visiting a physician.2

Like other chronic pain conditions, low back pain is a very complex disorder. Common physical causes include diseases or injuries to the muscles, bones and/or nerves of the spine. However, only in fewer than 20 per cent of cases can acute or sub-acute low back pain be attributed to a clear cause.3 Therefore a comprehensive and thorough assessment and diagnosis is essential for providing appropriate treatment.


1 Balague F. Non-specific low back pain. Lancet 2012; 79: 482-91
2 The Bone & Joint Decade: Back Pain and Spine. Accessed via [last accessed February 2021]
3 Ehrlich G. Low back pain. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2003; 81: 671-676


Osteoarthritis (also known as degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease or osteoarthrosis) is the most widespread of all chronic joint diseases and one of the most common reasons for analgesic treatment. In particular elderly people are affected. Osteoarthritis usually occurs in the hands, the feet, the spine, and the large, weight-bearing joints such as the hips and knees.

The disease course is characterised by a degeneration and eventual loss of joint cartilage. This causes pain, swelling and a loss of motion of the affected joints. The acute pain of early osteoarthritis lasts often less than 3-6 months, but may return and become chronic if the affected joint is overburdened. Therefore prompt and appropriate treatment of osteoarthritic pain is of major importance for maintaining patients’ mobility and quality of life.

Mature senior middle aged woman holding pill and glass of water taking painkiller to relieve pain


Chronic pain considerably reduces the quality of life of the patients. Therefore the aim of chronic pain therapy has to be the suppression of pain.

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M-N/A-UK-03-24-0006 - March 2024